E have been sacrificed at 21 d.p.i. and tissues collected, fixed and stained with H E for histological evaluation. The number of cellular infiltrates observed in the muscle tissues of each group was not considerably various confirming disease resolution. On the other hand, mice that were treated with PPS displayed less muscle fibre damage when in comparison to CHIKV-infected mock-treated animals. Slides have been scanned together with the Aperio Scan Scope XT digital slide scanner. A representative image from every group of mice is shown. Pictures are representatives of five mice per group. Scale bar represents 100 m. (TIF) S3 Fig. PPS therapy of CHIKV-infected mice aids in myocyte regeneration. C57BL/6 mice had been infected s.c. with 104 PFU CHIKV or PBS alone and received everyday injections of PPS-treatment or mock-treatment with PBS. Mice were sacrificed at 7 d.p.i. and tissues collected, fixed and stained with H E for histological evaluation. Mice that have been treated with PPS displayed enhanced myocyte regeneration as seen by infiltrating repair monocytes. Regenerating myocytes are characterized by centrally aligned nuclei and dark-stained cytoplasm (indicated by arrows). Slides have been scanned together with the Aperio Scan Scope XT digital slide scanner. A representative image from each group of mice is shown. Images are representatives of five mice per group. Scale bar represents 60 m. (TIF) S4 Fig. PPS will not be antiviral. To confirm that the method of action of PPS at acute infection (7 d.p.i.) will not be as a consequence of an antiviral impact, C57BL/6 mice were infected s.c. with 104 PFU CHIKV and received each day injections of PPS-treatment or mock-treatment with PBS. Mice had been sacrificed at 7 d.p.i., and tissues had been collected, and RNA extracted. 1 ug of RNA was reversed transcribed to cDNA using TetroTM cDNA Synthesis Kit (4-1BB Inhibitor Compound Meridian Bioscience). CHIKV genome copy numbers (GCN) quantification was performed utilizing the following primers for nsP2 F: 5′– CCGAAAGGAAACTTCAAAGCAACT- 3′ and R: 5′ -CAGATGCCCGCCATTATTGATG–3′. The SensiFASTTM SYBR1 No-ROX kit (Meridian Bioscience) was used as outlined by the manufacturer’s instructions. Cycling circumstances were: 3 min at 95 , followed by 40 cycles of five s at 95 , ten s at 58 and 20 s at 72 . Purified plasmid DNA containing S1PR3 Storage & Stability full-length Reunion Island CHIKV isolate LR2006-OPY1 genome was serially diluted and utilized as standards. Viral genome copy numbers have been calculated based on the level of DNA in the requirements (g) and the size from the plasmid. Cq values were plotted applying Graphpad Prism plus the corresponding GCN values for each sample were extrapolated in the regular curve. RNA analysed was from 5 animals/group. Statistical evaluation to evaluate the CHIKV-infected untreated group for the CHIKV-infected PPS-treated group was performed using a One-Way ANOVA with a Tukey’s post-test. No statistical significance was identified. (TIF) S5 Fig. Serum chemokine and cytokine levels that had been not altered. As a part of the Bio-Plex Pro Mouse Chemokine Panel 33-Plex, chemokine and cytokine levels of mock, PPS alone (PPS), CHIKV-infected untreated (CHIKV) and CHIKV-infected PPS-treated (CHIKV/PPS) mice were assessed at 7 d.p.i. (peak illness). All values are presented as mean pg/mL SEM of five mice per group. One-Way ANOVA with a Tukey’s post-test was employed but showed no statistical significance involving groups. (TIF) S6 Fig. DEGs regulated in joint (A) and muscle tissues (B) at peak illness for the duration of CHIKV infection. Gene expression analysis of RNA was performed utilizing the commercially availablePLOS 1 https://doi.