Et al. recommend that Cur-D increases LPS induced Il-1 level, Cur-D alone did not elevate the IL-1 level in macrophages . Interestingly, the IL-6 level was substantially decreased with the CSC exposure. Our final results are supported by those of Zhao et al. who reported that CSC exposure significantly reduces the IL-6 secretion in mouse macrophage cell lines . We also observed a similar trend in clinical samples in which the IL-6 level was comparatively low in HIV subjects who smoke compared to HIV-positive subjects alone . Even so, the exact mechanism by which CSC reduces the HCV Protease drug degree of IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, just isn’t clear. Within the existing study, treatment with Cur-D showed an elevated degree of IL-6. A study by Weimer et al. suggests that improved IL-6 secretion collectively with decreased IL-10 secretion appear to be involved in inducing CD4 helper dysfunction in HIV-positive subjects . In their study, the authors have also observed that a patient who presented with improved IL-6 secretion, but no diminished IL-10 secretion, had a typical T-cell clone helper function. Furthermore, the patient did not progress to establishing AIDS through a 6-month observation period, in spite of an incredibly low CD4 cell count of 45/ . This suggests an important role of unaffected IL-10 secretion in a CD4 helper function. In our study, even though the treatment with Cur-D increased IL-6 level, it did not substantially affect the IL-10 level, suggesting that increased IL-6 level with Cur-D may well not contribute to CD4 cell dysfunction. IL-10 is an essential immunoregulatory cytokine with multiple biological effects. Within the present study, the IL-10 level was significantly lowered with CSC exposure. These final results are in line with our prior findings observed in plasma samples of HIV-positive PKCη Storage & Stability smokers . Said et al. reported that improved IL-10 production by monocytes is among the mechanisms by which microbial products inhibit T-cell function in HIV-infected subjects . Moreover, IL-10 production is positively correlated with improved peripheral CD4+T cell depletion and elevated numbers of microbes like M. tuberculosis in HIV-positive subjects . Overall, these findings suggest a optimistic correlation of IL-10 production with CD4 T cell dysfunction in HIV infection. Inside the present study, when compared with manage, the IL-10 level didn’t modify with Cur-D remedy, suggesting that Cur-D may not result in T-cell dysfunction. To confirm this, we are in the process of building an HIV-infected T-cell model. The literature and our studies have shown the part of oxidative anxiety, generated by CSC, on HIV replication [9,10]. As anticipated, CSC lowered the levels of AOEs, in particular SOD1, suggesting an increase in oxidative tension. Nonetheless, Cur-D alone at the same time as inside the presence of CSC also reduced the degree of SOD1. The findings suggest that Cur-D will not suppress HIV, either straight or within the presence of CSC, through the oxidative stress pathway. On the other hand, a decreased level of SOD1 by Cur-D may be explained by its toxic nature, as Cur-D shows toxicity to a lot of cells, specifically to cancer cells [45,64,65]. The truth is,Viruses 2021, 13,11 ofdue to its toxic function to kill cancer cells, Cur-D is studied to be utilized as adjuvant therapy in cancer therapy . The important limitation of presently utilized ART drugs is their inability to cross the BBB and eradicate the virus in the brain [66,67]. A few of these ART drugs are also reported to result in neurotoxicity.