Study, analysed data and wrote the paper. Funding The study was funded by the UK Health-related Research Council (clinical education fellowship to OLM-N), and by the Sir Jules Thorn Charitable Trust. DJD is definitely an MRC Senior Study Fellow (G1002046). Competing interests None. Ethics approval The study was approved by the Lothian Research Ethics Committee (reference 08/S1102/32). Provenance and peer critique Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.Moncayo-Nieto OL, Wilkinson TS, Brittan M, et al. BMJ Open Resp Res 2014;1:e000046. doi:10.1136/bmjresp-2014-Open AccessData sharing statement No extra information are available. Open Access This can be an Open Access report distributed in accordance with all the terms with the Inventive Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits other individuals to distribute, remix, adapt and create upon this operate, for industrial use, offered the original function is appropriately cited. See: creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/15. 16. 17. Zhang Z, Louboutin JP, Weiner DJ, et al. Human airway epithelial cells sense Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection via recognition of flagellin by Phosphatase Inhibitor supplier Toll-like receptor five. Infect Immun 2005;73:7151?0. Nishimura M, Naito S. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiles of human Toll-like receptors and connected genes. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28:886?two. Ritter M, Mennerich D, Weith A, et al. Characterization of Toll-like receptors in major lung epithelial cells: strong influence in the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) on the regulation of Toll-like receptors, adaptor proteins and inflammatory responses. J Inflamm (Lond) 2005;2:16. Chang LC, Hua CC, Chu CM, et al. Differential mRNA expression of Toll-like receptors and their adaptors in pleural effusions. Respirology 2009;14:1194?. Bulut Y, Faure E, Thomas L, et al. Cooperation of Toll-like receptor 2 and six for cellular activation by soluble tuberculosis factor and Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A lipoprotein: part of Toll-interacting protein and IL-1 receptor CaMK III manufacturer signaling molecules in Toll-like receptor two signaling. J Immunol 2001;167:987?four. Piao W, Song C, Chen H, et al. Endotoxin tolerance dysregulates MyD88- and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN–dependent pathways and increases expression of unfavorable regulators of TLR signaling. J Leukoc Biol 2009;86:863?5. Shibolet O, Podolsky DK. TLRs within the gut. IV. Negative regulators of Toll-like receptors and intestinal homeostasis: addition by subtraction. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2007;292: G1469?three. Song Z, Yin J, Yao C, et al. Variants inside the Toll-interacting protein gene are linked with susceptibility to sepsis within the Chinese Han population. Crit Care 2011;15:R12. Shah JA, Vary JC, Chau TT, et al. Human TOLLIP regulates TLR2 and TLR4 signaling and its polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis. J Immunol 2012;189:1737?six. Schimming TT, Parwez Q, Petrasch-Parwez E, et al. Association of Toll-interacting protein gene polymorphisms with atopic dermatitis. BMC Dermatol 2007;7:3. Kalliom i M, Satokari R, L teenoja H, et al. Expression of microbiota, Toll-like receptors, and their regulators in the modest intestinal mucosa in celiac illness. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2012;54:727?2. Nanthakumar N, Meng D, Goldstein AM, et al. The mechanism of excessive intestinal inflammation in necrotizing enterocolitis: an immature innate immune response. PLoS 1 2011;6:e17776. Witherden IR, Vanden Bon EJ, Goldstraw P, et al. Key human alveolar sort II epithelial cell chemokine release:.